Acquisition of Slaves: Acquisition of slaves primarily occurs in one of five
· Deceitentails the false offer of a job, travel, or other income-generating
opportunity for the purpose of acquiring a slave.
· Sale by Family
conditions of poverty, desperation, and displacement lead many families to sell
a child into slavery.
· Abduction is
not as frequent a means as the mainstream media portrays. Transportation is
much more challenging and abducted victims are inherently unwilling to travel
and will try to escape at any opportunity.
where victims are originally acquired through promises of love. “Lover boys”
are agents who approach attractive and vulnerable young girls, offering them
undying love, treating them to extravagant gifts, and seducing them to migrate
to a rich country where they can build a life together.
· Recruitment by Former Slaves which can be the hardest to grasp until taking into account
the numerous adaptive mechanisms slaves utilize to survive their ordeals,
including drug and alcohol abuse and the morose acceptance that the life of a
slave is the best life they deserve. After many brainwashing years, some slaves
become allies to the slave owners.
Bonded Labor: One form of coercion is the use of a bond or debt. U.S. law prohibits the use of a debt or other threats of financial harm as a form of coercion and the Palermo Protocol requires its criminalization as a form of trafficking in persons. Debt bondage of migrant laborers in their countries of origin, often with the support of labor agencies and employers in the destination country, can also contribute to a situation of debt bondage. Such circumstances may occur in the context of employment-based temporary work programs when a worker’s legal status in the country is tied to the employer and workers fear seeking redress.
Bottom; Bottom B; or Bottom B---ch: A female appointed by the trafficker/pimp to supervise the others and report rule violations. Operating as his “right hand,” the Bottom may help instruct victims, collect money, book hotel rooms, post ads, or inflict punishments on other girls.
Branding: A tattoo or carving on a victim that indicates ownership by a trafficker/pimp/gang.
Brothel (a/k/a Cathouse or Whorehouse): These establishments may be apartments, houses, trailers, or any facility where sex is sold on the premises. It could be in a rural area or nice neighborhood. Most brothels have security measures to prevent attacks by other criminals or provide a warning if law enforcement are nearby. The security is two sided–to keep the women and children in, as well as robbers out. The places often are guarded (and open) 24 hours a day, but some have closing times in which the victims are locked in from the outside. Victims may be kept in this location for extended periods of time, or rotated to other locations every few days.
Caught A Case: A term that refers to when a pimp or victim has been arrested and charged with a crime.
Choosing Up: The process by which a different pimp takes “ownership” of a victim. Victims are instructed to keep their eyes on the ground at all times. According to traditional pimping rules, when a victim makes eye contact with another pimp (accidentally or on purpose), she is choosing him to be her pimp. If the original pimp wants the victim back, he must pay a fee to the new pimp. When this occurs, he will force the victim to work harder to replace the money lost in transaction.
Circuit: A series of cities among which prostituted people are moved. One example would be the West Coast circuit of San Diego, Las Vegas, Portland, and the cities between. The term can also refer to a chain of states such as the “Minnesota pipeline” by which victims are moved through a series of locations from Minnesota to markets in New York.
Coercion: Threats of serious harm or physical restraint against any person; any scheme, plan or pattern intended to cause a person to believe that failure to perform an act would result in serious harm to or physical restraint against any person; or threatened abuse of legal process
Continued Presence: Allows victims who lack legal status and are assisting law enforcement as potential witnesses to remain in the country for the course of criminal investigation. Through continued presence, victims can receive temporary immigration relief.
Contract Slavery: Relatively modern form of slavery, where a worker is deceived into slavery through the use of a false employment contract. Slave holders create contracts to lure individuals with promises of employment, yet once they arrive at the workplace they are forced to work for no pay and cannot escape. The false contracts are used to avoid criminal charges or to prove that a “debt” is owed to the slaveholder.
Daddy: The term a pimp will often require his victim to call him.
Date: The time and place where a prostituted woman or girl is scheduled to meet a man, known as a “john.”
Debt-bondage: An illegal practice in which traffickers tell their victims that they owe money (often relating to the victims’ living expenses and transport into the country) and that they must pledge their personal services either for labor or commercial sex to repay the debt.
Escort Service: An organization, operating chiefly via cell phone and the internet, which sends a victim to a buyer’s location (an “outcall”) or arranges for the buyer to come to a house or apartment (an “in-call”); this may be the workplace of a single woman or a small brothel. Some escort services are networked with others and can assemble large numbers of women for parties and conventions.
Exit Fee: The money a pimp will demand from a victim who is thinking about trying to leave. It will be an exorbitant sum, to discourage her from leaving. Most pimps never let their victims leave freely.
Exploitation: Exploitation begins the moment the slave is acquired. Slaves are raped, tortured, starved, humiliated, and drugged during transportation, both for the pleasure of traffickers and also to break the slaves to make them more submissive upon sale.
Family/Folks: The term used to describe the other individuals under the control of the same pimp. He plays the role of father (or “Daddy”) while the group fulfills the need for a “family.”
Federal Law Enforcement Authorization (LEA): Refers to any federal law enforcement agency that has the responsibility and authority for the detection, investigation, or prosecution of severe forms of trafficking in persons. Qualified LEAs include, but are not limited to, the offices of the Department of Justice, United States Attorney, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (USICE), United States Marshal Service, and the Diplomatic Security Service of the Department of State. Certification of a person as a "trafficking victim" by a LEA is required by the TVPA before a trafficking victim can apply for the T Visa.
Pimp:One who prides himself on controlling others primarily
through psychological manipulation. Although he may shower his victims with
affection and gifts (especially during the recruitment phase), the threat of
violence is always present.
Guerilla) Pimp: A pimp who controls his victims almost
entirely through physical violence and force.
Grooming: Generally, grooming is a phased, gradual process used by perpetrators
to sexually exploit children and young people. It can take place over varying
periods of time – from a few days to several years. It can also take different
forms, and be more or less violent. Although the process of grooming someone
may come in stages, each case is unique in its development. Typical grooming
involves a number of stages:
Initial Contact may be direct or through a child’s school mates, friends, siblings or
neighbors. Typically someone who is regarded as an equal. Points of contact
include home, school, shopping malls, entertainment arcades, leisure clubs, bus
and train stations.
after initial contact includes being introduced to one or more older men who
pose as or are the initial contact’s older brother or cousin. This stage
involves perpetrators using coercive and non-coercive seductive and deceptive
behavior. Non-coercive behavior includes buying gifts, making promises, giving
excessive attention, telling lies, exploiting the child’s infatuation,
attributing guilt, damaging the child’s self-esteem and offering a luxurious,
expensive and exciting lifestyle. Coercive measures include using force and
violence, making threats and intimidation, alienating the individual from the
family, supplying alcohol and drugs, and introducing the child to criminal
Exchange of favors follows the befriending stage, where the child typically feels
infatuated with the older man, interprets his attention and behavior as love
and regards him as a ‘boyfriend’. The child’s infatuation can override and
weaken the child’s ability to see through and resist the coercion and
deception. At this point, the man then seeks sexual favors for himself and for
others. The child is expected to perform sexual acts as either proof of the
child’s love for this man or as a way of paying for the ‘kindness’ shown during
the befriending stage. The child is normally unaware that money is exchanging
hands. Although legally significant, the awareness of the exchange of money is
a minor consideration. More serious for the child is the demand for sexual
activity and the actual experience of it, which can be profoundly shocking and
shaming. The perpetrators use the shame against the child as it makes it more
difficult for the child to seek help.
used when the child expresses unwillingness to return to sexual favors, the
perpetrators start making threats. Control is gained over the child by
encouraging the child to play hooky from school and fear reprisals from parents
and school authorities, showing the child weapons in the car or on the person
keeping the child under constant threat, encouraging addiction to cigarettes,
alcohol and drugs and making the child dependent on him to supply these,
photographing the child performing sexual activities and threatening to
publicize the images, involving the child in criminal activities and
threatening the child with police action, using physical violence and threats
against the child and the child’s family.
occurs in the later stages, the perpetrators build upon the alienation which
may have begun in earlier stages through the child’s skipping school, deception
and concealment. The perpetrators continue to seek to sever the child’s links
with family, friends and other support systems. Distance means the
perpetrators’ activities go unhindered. The child is led further into a life of
violence, exploitation and crime. The sexually exploitation process results in
the child earning money to support the child’s ‘needs’ and those of the
perpetrators. Control and alienation is exercised by encouraging over 16s to
seek their own accommodation in order to exploit the distance from support
networks and create a widened, irreversible gap; proactively seeking
accommodation for the child; encouraging the child to make abuse claims against
family members; using ‘love’ AND physical and mental torture; encouraging
teenage pregnancy and then exercising further control via a baby or arranging a
termination; and creating conflicting feelings of love and hate, protection and
exploitation, guilt and innocence, entitlements and duties.
Human trafficking:The illegal trading, either
nationally or internationally, of human beings for the purpose of commercial
sexual exploitation or forced labor; a modern-day form of slavery. It is the
fastest growing criminal industry in the world, and second largest, tied with
the illegal arms industry and second only to the drug trade.
domestic servitude: Non-consensual labor exploitation in an informal workplace,
often a home and often connected to the victim’s off-duty living quarters. Such
an environment, which can socially isolate domestic workers, is conducive to
nonconsensual exploitation since authorities cannot inspect private property as
easily as they can inspect formal workplaces.
John: A slang term for a man who pays for the services of a prostitute
Kiddie Stroll: An area known for
prostitution that features younger victims.
Labor trafficking: “The recruitment,
harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or
services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion.” (Trafficking Victims
Protection Act of 2000). Victims are forced to work against their will under
threat of violence or other punishment. Their freedom is restricted and a
degree of ownership is exerted.
Lot Lizard:Derogatory term for
a person who is being prostituted at truck stops.
Madam: An older woman
who manages a brothel, escort service or other prostitution establishment. She
may work alone or in collaboration with other traffickers.
Movement: Movement from countries of origin through transit countries into
destination countries. In the case of internal trafficking, the same country
acts as origin, transit, and destination.
Out of Pocket: The phrase
describing when a victim is not under control of a pimp but working on a
pimp-controlled track, leaving her vulnerable to threats, harassment, and
violence in order to make her “choose” a pimp. This may also refer to a victim
who is disobeying the pimp’s rules.
Peonage: Holding someone against his or her will to pay off a debt.
Pimp Circle: When several pimps
encircle a victim to intimidate through verbal and physical threats in order to
discipline the victim or force her to choose up.
Quota:A set amount of
money that a trafficking victim must make each night before she can come
“home.” Quotas are often set between $300 and $2000. If the victim returns
without meeting the quota, she is typically beaten and sent back out on the
street to earn the rest. Quotas vary according to geographic region, local
Reckless Eyeballing:A term which refers
to the act of looking around instead of keeping your eyes on the ground.
Eyeballing is against the rules and could lead an untrained victim to “choose
up” by mistake.
Renegade: A person involved
in prostitution without a pimp.
Restavecs: Children in Haiti
are given or sold by their parents into domestic work for another family. The
children are promised to education, training and care, but many become slaves
for the family, where they are abused and forced to work.
Seasoning: A combination of
psychological manipulation, intimidation, gang rape, sodomy, beatings,
deprivation of food or sleep, isolation from friends or family and other
sources of support, and threatening or holding hostage of a victim’s children.
Seasoning is designed to break down a victim’s resistance and ensure
Servile or Forced Marriage: A marriage where the woman has been forced or
coerced into marriage against her will. The woman is forced to work, and
frequently physically and sexually abused. In some cases the woman has been
sold into the marriage.
Sex Industry:Sector of the economy in which sexual acts, performances or
images are exchanged for money.
Sex trafficking: Sexual trafficking is a modern-day form of slavery in
which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which
the person induced to perform such an act is under the age of 18. A “commercial
sex act” means any sex act performed for financial gain. Victims of sex
trafficking can be women or men, girls or boys, but the majority are women and
Slave: A person held against his or her will and controlled physically or
psychologically by violence or its threat for the purpose of appropriating
Slave Trading: The process of acquiring, recruiting, harboring,
receiving, transporting an individual, through any means and for any distance,
into a condition of slavery or slave-like exploitation.
Slavery: The process of
coercing labor or other services from a captive individual, through any means,
including exploitation of bodies or body parts. Slave trading represents the
supply side of trafficking whereas slavery represents the demand side
Squaring Up: Attempting to
escape or exit prostitution.
Stable: A group of victims
who are under the control of a single pimp.
Supply Side: These are the several factors that have contributed to the
supply of potential slave labor throughout history, including poverty, bias
against gender or ethnicity, lawlessness, military conflict, social
instability, and economic breakdown. Each factor was also directly exacerbated
by the sweeping phenomenon of economic globalization.
The Game/The Life: The subculture of
prostitution, complete with rules, a hierarchy of authority, and language.
Referring to the act of pimping as ‘the game’ gives the illusion that it can be
a fun and easy way to make money, when the reality is much harsher. Women and
girls will say they’ve been “in the life” if they’ve been involved in
prostitution for a while.
Track (a/k/a Stroll
or Blade):An area of town known for prostitution activity. This
can be the area around a group of strip clubs and pornography stores, or a
particular stretch of street.
Trade Up/Trade Down: To move a victim like merchandise between
pimps. A pimp may trade one girl for another or trade with some exchange of
Trick:Committing an act
of prostitution (verb), or the
person buying it (noun). A
victim is said to be “turning a trick” or “with a trick.”
Turn Out: To be forced into
prostitution (verb) or a person
newly involved in prostitution (noun).
Underground Commercial Sex Economy (UCSE): The illegal financial system
around the sale of human beings for sexual purposes.
Unlawful Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers: Child soldiering is a
manifestation of human trafficking when it involves the unlawful recruitment or
use of children – through force, fraud, or coercion – by armed forces as
combatants or other forms of labor. Some child soldiers are also sexually
exploited by armed groups. Perpetrators may be government armed forces,
paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups. Many children are forcibly
abducted to be used as combatants. Others are unlawfully made to work as
porters, cooks, guards, servants, messengers, or spies. Young girls can be
forced to marry or have sex with male combatants. Both male and female child
soldiers are often sexually abused and are at high risk of contracting sexually